Basic Robotics

Project Guide Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory machines that can take the place of humans, in hazardous or manufacturing processes, or simply Just resemble humans. Many of today’s robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The concept in creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but esearch into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.

Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build new robots that serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do Jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, exploring shipwrecks, and mines. Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history.

The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel Capek in his play R. IJ. R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though they are closer to the modern ideas of androids. Karel Capek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Capek as its actual originator.

In 1927 the Maschinenmensch (“machine- human”) gynoid humanoid robot (also called “Parody”, “Futura”, “Robotrix”, or the Maria impersonator”) was the first and perhaps the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played by German actress Brigitte Helm in Fritz Lang’s filmMetropolis. In 1942 the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov formulated his Three Laws of Robotics and, in the process of doing so, coined the word “robotics” (see details in “Etymology” section above).

In 1948 Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics. Fully autonomous robots only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 o lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform Jobs more cheaply, or more accurately and reliably, than humans. They are also employed in Jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans.

Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods. Power source At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source. Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots. They range from lead acid batteries which are safe and have relatively long shelf lives but are rather heavy to silver cadmium batteries that are much smaller in volume and are currently much factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and weight.

Generators, often some type of internal combustion engine, can also be used. However, such designs are often mechanically complex and need fuel, require heat dissipation and are relatively heavy Actuation Actuators are like the “muscles” of a robot, the parts which convertstored energy into ovement. Electric motors The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. Air muscles Pneumatic artificial muscles, also known as air muscles, are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside them.

Electroactive polymers EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 380% activation strain) from electricity, and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots,[20] and to allow new robots to float, fly, swim or walk. Piezo motors Recent alternatives to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramicelements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion. Elastic nanotubes Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development.

The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. Sensing Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain measurement of the nvironment, or internal components. Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips.

Vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific extract information from images. Manipulation Robots need to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. Thus the “hands” of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the “arm” is referred to as a manipulator. Mechanical grippers One of the most common effectors is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation it consists of Just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects.

Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it. Vacuum grippers Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive devices, but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. Environmental interaction and navigation Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are either human controlled, or operate in a static environment, there is an increasing interest in obots that can operate autonomously in a dynamic environment.

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