Types of Learning and how they apply to developing football skills
Intellectual Skills: the intellectual type of learning involves learning a variety of strategies to deal with situations symbolically. This involves; reading, writing and mathematical equations. Learning information via books or programs is a written way of learning this type of learning is most commonly used less confident people. Learning information intellectually means that it is stored in the memory; this stored information can then be used in a later training or competitive situation.
Verbal: this learning skill is carried out by using communication or body language. Communication is used in every competitive sport, whether it is the coach shouting tactics or team mates communicating to each other for instance ‘man on! ‘In football allows the player who has the football to then have a warning so they can either carry the ball or release it to prevent the other team from intercepting the football. When a coach gives a demonstration the players are listening to them and also watching his/her body language, when a coach is demonstrating a long ball the coach will explain how to carry out the skill but the demonstration will also give the players an even clearer explanation. ‘when the coach kicks the ball they will notice that he/she leans backwards to add more lift on to the football’
Cognitive: this type of learning requires the sportsperson to control their learning. The athlete will remember competitive moments were he/she has carried out a skill that has been successful; they will then remember that skill and try to include it in the next situation, the athlete will do this many times with their experience the skill will gradually progress.
Attitudinal: Attitudinal learning is using your own conscience when faced with choices. Not one person on this earth will have the same thoughts, personality and confidence so each persons choices will be for their own specific reason. Athletes with high levels of confidence would suit team sports such as football and rugby because these sports involve lots of communication and team work however an athlete with very little confidence may choose tennis because they only have to work with their coach and don’t have to communicate on the court.
Motor: This is the learning of single skills or actions put together, a tennis player will continuously practice with their backhand, forehand etc. the tennis player can then continue repeating these routines to improve this skill. By repeating these shots it eventually becomes habitual to the player therefore allowing the tennis player to focus on something else.
Stage 1. Cognitive (Beginner) (Short Phase)
When an athlete first begins a new skill they will go through this phase, most athletes will progress through this phase at a reasonable speed however each athlete needs to start here because they need to learn the basics first.
Stage 2. Associative (Intermediate) (longer phase)
The skill the athlete was learning in the cognitive stage will progress to this level, the athlete will continue in practicing the skill, as the athlete continues in doing this they will notice that the skill is becoming habitual gradually.
Stage 3. Autonomous (Advanced) (extended phase)
This phase is the final of the 3 stage learning model, the skill at this level should have been well practiced and almost habitual, although the athlete may know how to carry out the skill they will be still unaware of how to include this in a competitive environment, at this stage the athlete will learn how to include the skill in a competitive situation and how to carry it out whilst in this situation.
Feedback: training and competition can be counterproductive if athletes are not made aware of their good or bad performance. They need to know if their efforts are correct. Bad practice can engrain bad technique – Sports Coaching and Teaching – Tony Gummerson
The coach should:
1. Observe the sport-specific performance of an activity and general pattern of movement by the participants
2. Analyse performance against agreed criteria appropriate to their level of performance
3. Identify faults
4. Prioritise the order in which faults should be rectified
5. Provide the necessary technical and tactical information and advice to correct each fault
There are a lot of wonderful benefits to constructive feedback. The main one is that it can make you a better person by improving on any points. Also, if the feedback is related to learning a new skill, it can actually help shorten the learning curve. Frequent verbal encouragement leads to significantly greater maximum effort, This is because in doing this it externally motivates them to do better and with them knowing that the coaches ; spectators wants them to do well they try harder and put more effort in to their exercise.
Stage 1. Cognitive
* Informed of the laws of the game
* Brief explanation of the skill being taught
* When it can be used in a football match
Participants of the coaching session will require an explanation on the FIFA Laws of the game, the coach will explain how when the ball fully crosses either the touchline or goal line that a restart must take place this can either be a: throwing, goal kick or restart from the centre. Other basic rules: 11aside, two 45minute half’s with a max. 15 minute half time break, only goalkeepers allowed to pick up the ball, all other players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms, a goal is awarded when the ball crosses the line in-between the goalposts, team with the highest number of goals after 90minutes wins, different colour jerseys must be worn to identify teams.
The athletes will then be placed into 3 even groups each group will be given a different colour bib to distinguish them from other players.
Firstly the coach will demonstrate how to carry out a pass, so the coach will ask one participant to stand at the cone, slowly the coach will explain which part of the foot you should contact the ball with whilst communicating with the group at the same time the coach will demonstrate this skill. The coach will then go on to explain how this activity is carried out to help develop this skill, so the coach will ask for another volunteer that participant will then stand at the cone the coach will explain how the ball should be passed to the athlete who is stood at the cone, once the ball is passed the participant should go to the back of the line, the athlete second in line will then receive the ball from the participant who is stood at the cone then he/she will return the ball, the coach will then assess the groups overall ability and how long he/she should wait before progressing. I chose this activity because it is basic and allows participants to practice their passing skills in a non competitive environment.
Stage 2. Associative
The participants will be asked to stay in the same positions however the coach will now progress this activity, the coach will extend the playing area placing the cones a few meters further back from the players, a different volunteer will be chosen the participant will then be asked to stand at the cone – the coach will pass the ball reminding the participants what part of the foot they should kick it with, the coach will then run to the cone and the player who was initially at the cone will go to the back of the line, once again the coach will assess the groups passing ability and will choose how long this activity should go on for, whilst doing the coach will encourage participants – correcting their passing techniques at times whilst also encouraging them. I decided to progress this activity to this level because it is not in a competitive environment, but instead it allows the players to work on their passing technique – and also keeping them interested by changing the scenario slightly.
Stage 3. Autonomous
Asking the participants to stay in their current positions the coach will alter the activity by moving the cone slightly back, in this progression when the receiver receives the ball they will spin to the left and take the ball with them, they will the pass the ball to the front of the line the person who initially played the ball will take up their position at the cone. The coach will demonstrate this and also explain how this can be related to a competitive situation – for example when the participant receives the ball they can be made to believe that they are being closed down by an opposition so they need to move slightly with the ball to get into a better position so that they can then release the ball. I chose this progression because it has a clear competitive relation in which the player has to move with the ball so they don’t loose possession.
Stage. 1 Cognitive
Participants at this level will be already aware of the laws of the game, so the coach will be able to go straight into the session. However in order to progress to the next stage participants must firstly have an understanding on the basics of how to shoot in football. The coach will ask for a volunteer preferably some one who enjoys goalkeeping. The coach will then ask the participants to come closer to get a much better view of his foot striking the ball. With a slow motion the coach will tell the players how they should bring their leg back and strike the ball fast with their laces to add power and accuracy to the ball.
The participants will line up in three different groups, each group will then be given three six football so that each participant will get two shots each, the coach will then
explain though a demonstration how you should pick your target and then strike the ball with your laces, the main aim of the game is the team that has the most football in the back of their net wins however there is no time limit so this isn’t a race. The coach then blows his/her whistle and the activity begins. I chose this activity as my stage one because it allows the participants to experiment with their shooting in that they are aiming for a target and striking the ball with their laces – in doing this they are learning the basic principles behind shooting as there is no competitive environment that is going to effect their shot.
Stage 2. Associative
As the athletes are still learning the method behind shooting the coach will keep the activity exactly the same however the coach will now explain that if the athletes want to add some lift to their shot they should lean backwards and aim to get their laces underneath the football, however if they want the shot to be low and power full they should lean forward and aim their laces at striking the middle of the ball, whilst explaining this the coach will give a demonstration so the participants can watch his/her body language to get a much better understanding.
Stage 3. Autonomous
The activity will once again stay the same however their will not be a competitive aspect added to the game, one person from each group will be asked to go and stand in the football nets so that the player has to aim the shot in order to score a goal and to prevent the goalkeeper from saving the ball. Once the player has shot the football they will replace the participant in the goal and that participant will then join their line. I have chose this activity because it allows the participants to practice their shooting skills in a competitive environment, the participants also have to aim their shot.
Stage 1. cognitive
The coach will ask the participants to get into pairs, once the participants are in these groups the coach will number each participant no.1 or no.2. the coach will then line all the no.1 on the side line with a one meter distance between each other. The coach will then stand six yards in front of the players lined on the side line and ask all no.2’s to stand on line with their partners. The coach will then give all no.1 a football which they must keep on the floor. The coach will then stand with in the centre and explain that a throwing is carried out when the opposition puts the ball out of play via the sideline, when a football takes a throwing they must bring the ball directly behind their head keeping both feet flat on the ground they must bring it right back over and release the ball. The coach will demonstrate this so the players can watch his/her body language getting a better understanding of the throwing technique.
Participants will then carry out this activity throwing the ball to their partner who will then catch it and return it to them through a throwing.
Stage 2. Associative
The activity will be kept the same however athletes will be asked to take two steps back to make the distance they have to throw the ball longer, as a throwing isn’t an easy technique participants will benefit by this continuous activity because the technique will gradually become habitual.
Stage 3. Autonomous
Participants will then be put into groups of four, the no.1s will act as defenders who have to try and prevent the ball being thrown over their heads, and no.2s will be attackers who are trying to throw the ball to each other, once the no.2’s have complete five successful passes they will then swap over and no. 1s will become the attackers. The ball must land at the attacker’s feet for it to be a successful pass. I choose this activity because it allows the participants to carry out this skill in a competitive environment.